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Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks

B. P. Bhoye1, B. R. Chavan1*, V. R. Sadavarte1, H. B. Dhamagaye1 , M. T. Kamble2 and B. T. Sawant1

1Faculty of Fishery Science, (Dr. B.S. Konkan Agricultural University), Ratnagiri, M.S., India, Pin-415629.

2AARM, SERD, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani-12120, Thailand

Corresponding author Email: brc15672@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:

The present study on the effect of green water system with harvested rain water on growth performance of freshwater fish Catla catla. Spawn of Catla with an initial length 5.50±0.04 mm and weight 10.99±0.30 mg were stocked at the rate of 6, 8, 10 and 12 no.l-1 in cement tanks (2x1x1m). The green water system containing live phytoplankton viz., Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and zooplankton viz., Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and Protozoa were was used. The results of the study indicated that the maximum average length gain was (357.89±3.08%), weight gain (779.53±18.03%), specific growth rate (5.56±0.08%) and survival (45.20±0.13%) and were recorded significantly (P<0.05) at stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 as compared to the other stocking densities. The growth of spawn to fry was observed to decrease with increase in the stocking density. Observations on the water quality revealed that the dissolved oxygen value decreased with an increased stocking density. Whereas, the value of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen increased with the increase in the stocking density. The study showed that better growth and survival of Catla catla spawn to fry stage with stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 reared for a period of16 days in cement tank.  The overall results of this study indicated that green water system with harvested rain water has a potential for rearing fish seeds.

KEYWORDS:

Catla catla; spawn; fry; aquaculture; Chlorophyta; Rotifera; rain water; cement tank



Copy the following to cite this article:

Bhoye B. P, Chavan B. R, Sadavarte V. R, Dhamagaye H. B, Kamble M. T, Sawant B. T. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(1).


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Bhoye B. P, Chavan B. R, Sadavarte V. R, Dhamagaye H. B, Kamble M. T, Sawant B. T. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(1). Available from: http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=2255


Introduction

Freshwater fish culture a promising enterprise was gradually realized, non-availability of quality of fish seed and lack of scientific culture constrains the development of carp farming [1]. Presently, freshwater fish culture is gaining importance in the state of Maharashtra in India. [2]. It has been observed farmers the state are taking keen interest to practice freshwater aquaculture. However, the major constraint is on the supply and access to quality freshwater fish seed [3]. The Konkan region of Maharashtra falls under high rainfall zone, the pre-monsoon showers (March-May) accounts for 25% of annual rainfall, while bulk of the rainfall (67%) occurs during June-September, which constitutes the monsoon season 3-4 months [4].

The physical, biological and chemical characteristics of water quality are which determines aquaculture operations. In short it can be concluded that effective water quality management is one of the important factor that contributes to the success of fish culture, and determines pond productivity [5]. Though Konkan region falls under the high rainfall category, the major part of water is drained and mixed in sea water due to its topography. Considering this situation, it is necessary to concentrate on harvesting rain water which can be used for producing of freshwater fish seeds.

Green water system, in which green algae consisting of planktons are allowed to grow and make available natural microscopic food to the fish larvae [6]. Green water tank culture of tilapia is an appropriate method for producing commercial level of tilapia, as phytoplankton and other small microscopic organism available within the water column are grazed on by tilapia and it helps to recycling waste nutrients and lowering feed conversion ratios [7]. Green water system provides plankton feeds to fish, shrimp and shellfish in the world’s most widespread and sustainable aquaculture approach [8].

Reviewing the literature it was observed that there is limited information on the direct use of harvested rain water for fish seed production. However, no study has been found on the nursery rearing of freshwater fish seed in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. The present study aims to assess the possibility of fry production of freshwater fish, Catla catla using green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank.

Materials And Methods

Study area

The present study was conducted at Wada Mirya finfish and shellfish hatchery of Marine Biological Research Station, at Latitude 17o.00’.57”.2 4N and Longitude 73o.16’.50”.4 7E, (Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University), Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India. The Konkan region of Maharashtra falls under high rainfall zone and large reservoirs area are available for culture based capture fish production.

Rain water harvesting method

The rain water falling on the roof of hatchery building was collected in cement tank through (U shaped) roof gutters attached to the edges of building roof (Figure 1). The roof gutters were fitted to PVC pipe for collecting the harvested water in large cement storage tank. The bolting silk of 40 um mesh size bag were fitted to PVC pipe to filter the harvested rain water. The total catchment area of the roof was 432 m2. During the first week of monsoon the roof was cleaned with rain water and then in second week of monsoon rain water was harvested and stored in three different rectangular cement tanks with a total storage capacity of 1, 50,000 l. As per the requirement, harvested rain water was taken into the experimental cement tank.

Development of Green water system

The outdoor rectangular cement tanks having dimensions of 5 m×1.5 m×1.5 m (two tanks) and two small size tanks having dimension 2m×1m×1m were used for development of green water system separately. Mixed plankton culture was maintained by adding inoculum obtained from Bhairi Temple Lake, nearby to the experimental station, to the harvested rain water. The slurry comprising of ground nut oil cake (GNOC) and rice bran (RB) (1:1) at the rate of 0.015 mg fry-1 day-1 for first three days before the stocking of fish seed to grow and multiply natural live feed [9]. Aeration pipes were arranged in the culture tank to keep the culture afloat, in outdoor cultures.

Table 1: Water quality parameters 

Parameter Average Range

Treatments

T1

T2

T3

T4

DO (mg l-1)

4.24-4.43

4.34               ± 0.012

4.33                ± 0.013

4.32                ± 0.014

4.32                ± 0.013

Temperature (o C)

23.3-22.5

22.80             ± 0.051

22.86              ± 0.055

22.91              ± 0.056

22.95              ± 0.061

pH

7.4-7.8

7.51               ± 0.040

7.57                ± 0.042

7.58                ± 0.046

7.63                ± 0.048

Calcium Hardness            (mg l-1 as CaCO3)

14-14.9

14.48             ± 0.050

14.54              ± 0.054

14.60              ± 0.060

14.66              ± 0.064

Magnesium Hardness     (mg l-1 as CaCO3)

17.9-18.91

18.44              ± 0.054

18.54              ± 0.054

18.61              ± 0.056

18.67              ± 0.059

Carbonate Alkalinity      (mg l-1 as CaCO3)

16.15-16.9

16.39             ± 0.033

16.49              ± 0.038

16.57              ± 0.043

16.63              ± 0.044

Bicarbonate Alkalinity     (mg l-1 as CaCO3)

18.1-18.9

18.38             ± 0.031

18.46              ± 0.035

18.57              ± 0.041

18.63              ± 0.046

Ammonia-nitrogen(mg l-1)

0.003-0.05

0.018             ± 0.008

0.020              ± 0.009

0.022              ± 0.010

0.024              ± 0.011

Nitrite-nitrogen(mg l-1)

0.002-0.005

0.0030           ± 0.001

0.0032            ± 0.002

0.0035            ± 0.001

0.0039            ± 0.001

Nitrate-nitrogen(mg l-1)

0.20-0.42

0.26                ± 0.026

0.27                ± 0.030

0.30                ± 0.042

0.32                ± 0.048

(T1:6 spawn l-1, T2:8 spawn l-1, T3:10 spawn l-1 and T4:12 spawn l-1).

Plankton samples

Water samples for phytoplankton (600 ml) were collected from three different points in the cement tank and fixed with Lugol’s solution [10] identified and counted using a hemocytometer under a microscope after overnight concentration to 0.2-0.4 ml [11]. Zooplankton samples were collected using plankton net No.25 (67 µm mesh) from bottom to surface. Zooplankton samples were preserved first in procaine and then in 4% formalin before identification. The animals were counted in a 1ml Sedgewick-Rafter Chamber.

Stocking

In experiment, the five days old healthy spawn of Catla catla having average length 5.50±0.04 mm and average weight of 10.99±0.30 mg were stocked at four different stocking densities viz. 6,8,10 and 12 spawn l-1 in harvested rain water in cement tanks. Daily green water with mixed planktons was added in the experimental tank at the rate of 5% through daily exchange of 5% water from each experimental tank. In addition to live food, slurry of  GNOC and RB in the ratio of 1:1 at the rate of 0.015 mg fry-1 day-1 for first 0-14 days [9]. GNOC and RB slurry were fed twice in a day during morning and evening. The experiment was conducted up to 16 days for the spawn to attain the fry stage. The experimental tanks were cleaned daily with the soft scrubber and siphoning of uneaten feed and fecal matter was performed after feeding.

Table 2: Growth Parameters

Treatment

Weight Gain (%)

Specific Growth Rate (%/day)

Length gain (%)

Survival rate (%)

T1

779.53±18.026a

5.55±0.052a

357.89±3.076a

45.20±0.13SD

T2

653.54±3.403b

5.15±0.011b

324.54±2.063b

39.68±0.07 SD

T3

576.57±2.871c

4.88±0.010c

277.17±3.172c

29.21±0.05 SD

T4

512.70±20.866d

4.62±0.087d

240.68±4.672d

26.50±0.07 SD

Treatment

Weight Gain (%)

Specific Growth Rate (%/day)

Length gain (%)

Survival rate (%)

T1

779.53±18.026a

5.55±0.052a

357.89±3.076a

45.20±0.13SD

T2

653.54±3.403b

5.15±0.011b

324.54±2.063b

39.68±0.07 SD

T3

576.57±2.871c

4.88±0.010c

277.17±3.172c

29.21±0.05 SD

T4

512.70±20.866d

4.62±0.087d

240.68±4.672d

26.50±0.07 SD

Water parameters

Water quality parameters viz., temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) alkalinity (bicarbonate and carbonate), hardness (calcium and magnesium) were observed on daily basis while analysis of other parameters like ammonia, nitrate and nitrite were done on weekly basis using standard methods [5].

Growth parameters

At initial and final stages of the experiment, the fishes were counted from each replicate and their individual length and weight were recorded. Sampling was carried out at an interval of seven days to observe the growth of fishes. At the time of sampling, 75 fishes from each experimental tank were randomly collected for recording the length and weight of fishes. At the end of the experiment, the survived fishes from each experimental tank were counted which provided the observation of survival rate of fishes. The average value of length and weight were recorded for each treatment of the experiment for analysis of growth parameters, such as length gain, weight gain, and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and survival (%) were calculated by using standard formulae [12].

 Figure 1: Rain water harvesting through (U Shape) gutter

Figure 1: Rain water harvesting through (U Shape) gutter

 

Click here to View figure

 

 Figure 2: Water quality parameters Figure 2: Water quality parameters  


Click here to View figure

 

 Figure 3: Variation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen (mg  l-1) in green water system with  harvested rain water

Figure 3: Variation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen,

and nitrate-nitrogen (mg  l-1) in green water system with

harvested rain water

 



Click here to View figure

 

Statistical Analysis

Standard error of the average length, weight, SGR and survival of the fry of catla for each replicate were calculated. Data obtained from the experiment for growth parameters and survival was analyzed by one way ANOVA. Differences were considered significant at an alpha level of 0.05, Student’s Newman Keul multiple range tests was used to determine the significant difference between the treatments

Results

Water quality of green water system with harvested rain water

The live mixed two group of phytoplankton viz., Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta were dominant, while four group of zooplankton viz., Rotifera, Cladocera (moina and daphnia), Copepoda and Protozoa also dominated in the green water system.

In the experiment of harvested rain water the dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen ranged from values of  4.24-4.43 mg l-1, 22.5-23.3 0C, 7.4-7.8, 14-14.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 17.9-18.91 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 16.15-16.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 18.1-18.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 0.003-0.05 mg l-1, 0.002-0.005 mg l-1, 0.20-0.42 mg l-1 respectively. The water quality parameters observed were recorded during the experiment (Table 1, Figure 2)

Growth performance

The average initial length, final length and length gain (%),average initial weight, final weight and weight gain, average specific growth rate (SGR) and survival of Catla catla spawn stocked at four different densities, i.e. T1 (6 Spawn l-1), T2 (8 spawn l-1), T3 (10 spawn l-1), and T4 (12 spawn l-1) are depicted in Figure 3. At the end of the experimental period, the growth performance parameters such as weight gain, specific growth rate, length gain and survival rate of Catla catla fry, grown in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tanks (Table 2, Figure 3)

The maximum and minimum average length gain, weight gain, specific growth rate, survival values were 357.89±3.08%, 779.53±18.03%, 5.56±0.08%, 45.20±0.13% and 240.68 ±4.68%,512.70±20.87%,4.62±0.09%.26.50±0.07 % in T1 and T4 respectively.

Discussion

Water quality of green water system with harvested rain water

Rain water harvesting can be achieved by using predesigned catchment areas to increase the efficiency of runoff and maximize the amount of collected rainfall [13]. The fate of millions of rain-fed farms is greatly improved by adopting the effective rainwater conservation and management practices [14]. Water quality influences health, survival, growth and production of fishes [15]. The temperature of the green water system with harvested rain water in the experimental cement tanks ranged from 22.5 to 23.3 oC in all the treatments during experimental period. The similar result was found with 23-30 oC [16]. The pH of the green water system with harvested rain water in the experimental cement tanks ranged from 7.4 to 7.8, in all the treatments. During the experiment pH increased from acidic to alkaline in harvested rain water and faster growth of Catla catla spawn to fry was observed.

The daily average dissolved oxygen ranged between values of 4.24-4.43 mg l-1 during experimental period. The dissolved oxygen was found to decrease over the culture period in all the densities. The decrease in the dissolved oxygen with the increasing stocking density was reported and the results are comparable with [17] and such a similar result was found in glass aquaria with re-circulatory system. The low dissolved oxygen results in water quality changes play an important role in affecting growth and survival of fish [18].

The daily average calcium hardness and magnesium hardness ranged between values of 14-14.9 and 17.9-18.91 mg l-1 respectively.The values were found to be in an optimal range and this might be due the use of harvested rain water containing calcium hardness and magnesium hardness. The marginal increase in calcium hardness and magnesium hardness were observed during culture period  and the values were within the acceptable limit.

The daily average carbonate alkalinity and bicarbonate alkalinity (mg l-1 as CaCO3) ranged between values of 16.15-16.91 and 18.1-18.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3 during experimental period. The optimum ranges of physico-chemical parameters of water for tropical fishes such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, total alkalinity and total hardness were stated as 24-28oC, 7.5-7.8, 6.0-8.0 ppm, <5, 75-120 ppm as CaCO3 and 60-1000 ppm as CaCO3 respectively [19].

The average ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen (mg l-1) ranged between values of 0.003-0.05, 0.002-0.005 and 0.20-0.42 mg l-1 during experimental period.

The increased values of ammonia with the increase in the stocking density were reported by [17]. Ammonia less than 0.05 mg l-1 as NH3-N, nitrite less than 0.02 mg l-1 as NO2-N and nitrate less than 50 mg l-1as NO2-N are found to be optimal for most of the freshwater fishes [20]. The water provided was of good quality throughout the experimental period water quality has a complex side effect on high stocking density [21].

Growth performance

The maximum average length gain of 357.89±3.08% were observed in T1. Whereas T4 showed the minimum average length gain of 240.68±4.68%, which showed significantly different (P<0.05) among all the treatments of stocking densities. The maximum average weight gain of 779.53±18.03% was observed in T1. whereas T4 showed the average weight gain of 512.70±20.87%, which showed significantly different (P<0.05) among all the treatments of stocking densities. The maximum specific growth rate of 5.56±0.08% was observed in T1 whereas T4 showed the minimum specific growth of 4.62±0.09%, which showed significant difference (P<0.05) in the specific growth rate (%)Catla catla spawn stocked at different densities. In this study, it was observed that rearing of Catla catla spawn to fry stage at low stocking density showed significantly high growth rate in terms of length gain, weight gain and specific growth rate. Similar observations were recorded related to growth Oreochromis niloticus fry by using cages in open pond water system [16], Ctenopharygodon idella  [15] by using reservoir water in aquaria. In the present study growth and survival were reduced by increasing stocking density. The similar results were found of Oreochromis niloticus [22] by using fiber glass aquaria with recirculatory system; Catla catla and Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita [18] using glass aquaria; Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio [23] in rain fed medium ecosystem.

Fish fry appeared healthy at the end of experimental trials with survival ranging from 26.50±0.07to 45.20±0.13%, which are significantly different among all the treatments of fish while there were a number of mortalities unrelated to diet. The maximum survival of (45.20±0.1250%) was found at low stocking density of 6 spawn l-1. Significantly the observation was that the survival of fry was found to be decreased with increasing stocking density. Similar observations were also found in glass aquaria [15] and in outdoor concrete tank [12]. However, the variation in the growth and survival between all the above mentioned studies and present study may be due to the variation in stocking density, feed composition and feed type in culture system.

Conclusion

The overall observations and results of this present study showed that underutilized rain water can be used for rearing freshwater fish seed by developing green water system in cemented tanks. The stocking density of spawn Catla catla at the rate of 6 no l-1 achieved better growth and survival in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank and there was no significant changes on water quality parameters. The water quality parameters were found to be within an optimum range during the spawn to fry stage rearing period of 16 days in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. It is concluded that, the green water system with harvested rain water would be the low cost alternative to production of freshwater fish seed for sustainable development of small scale freshwater fishery and to meet the demand for fish seeds.

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the Associate Dean and Senior Scientific Officer, Faculty of Fishery Science, Dr. B.S. Konkan Agricultural University, Ratnagiri,Maharastra, India for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work.

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