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Effect of Addition of Various Proportion Finger Millet on Chemical, Sensory and Microbial Properties of Sorghum Papads

Butti Prabhakar*, K. V. Pramod Kumar, P. Srilatha, D R More, F. Ramesh Chavan.  S. Shivashankar

College of Food Technology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani, M.H   Corresponding author Email: butti.prabhakar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:

This research work was conducted in the laboratory of College of Food Technology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani to evaluate effect of addition of various proportion finger millet on chemical, sensory and microbial properties of sorghum papad. Papads were prepared from Parbhani moti sorghum variety by incorporating finger millet flour. Finger millet flour was added to sorghum flour as 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% with other ingredients. Sorghum-finger millet papad was analyzed for proximate composition, organoleptic and microbial evaluation. The result revealed that Sorghum-finger millet papad prepared with 40% finger millet flour were found good acceptability with change in sensory and microbial properties of stored products.

KEYWORDS:

Chemical analysis; Finger millet; Microbial analysis; Sensory analysis and Sorghum papad



Copy the following to cite this article:

Prabhakar B, Kumar K. V. P, Srilatha P, More D. R, Chavan F. R, Shivashankar S. Effect of Addition of Various Proportion Finger Millet on Chemical, Sensory and Microbial Properties of Sorghum Papads. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(2).


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Prabhakar B, Kumar K. V. P, Srilatha P, More D. R, Chavan F. R, Shivashankar S. Effect of Addition of Various Proportion Finger Millet on Chemical, Sensory and Microbial Properties of Sorghum Papads. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(2). Available from: http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=2491


Introduction

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] popularly called as jowar, is the “king of millets” and is the fifth in importance among the world’s cereals after wheat, rice, maize and barley [1]. Sorghum provides a good basis for gluten-free products and recommended as safe for celiac patients. Therefore, the future promise of sorghum in the developed world is for wheat substitution for people with celiac disease or allergies to gluten [2]. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) can be stored for long periods without insect damage and thus it can be important during famine [4]. It is rich in calcium, phosphorus and iron, the calcium content is higher than in the common cereals and millets.

Papad is indigenous traditional snack item with thin wafer like product prepared from variety of ingredients. These are generally made from blend of pulse flour, cereal flour and edible starches with other ingredients. A variety of papads are available in India, which are produced from a great diversity of ingredients [8]. Generally, cereal papads are prepared from gelatinized flour prepared of soaked grains. The present study illustrated the chemical and physical analysis and organoleptic studies of papads prepared from Sorghum-finger millet flour.

Materials and Methods

Sorghum variety Parbhani Moti and Finger millet were procured from Sorghum Research Station Parbhani, Maharashtra. Refined vegetable oil, papad khar and spice mix were procured from local market. Chemicals (analytical grade), glass wares, equipments like domestic mixer (for grinding of sorghum and finger millet grains), texturometer (Stable Micro System TAXT2 plus), colour measuring instrument Colorflex EZ, cabinet drier, required during experiments were used from laboratory. Freshly prepared Sorghum-finger millet papads were evaluated for chemical, microbial characteristics and sensory judgments were made through rating products on a 9 point Hedonic scale. Microbial analysis was done to study the microbial quality of sorghum-finger millet papad by using pour plate technique. The analysis was done at the interval of one month after the preparation of sorghum-finger millet papad with concentration of Papad Khar was kept as constant.

Standardization of formula for preparation of sorghum-finger millet papad

Standardization of formula (ingredients in g/100g) for preparation of sorghum-finger millet papad was formulated by maintaining variations in Parbhani Moti, finger millet compositions and by maintaining constant compositions of other ingredients (Papad khar, black pepper, sesame seeds and asafetida).

Table 1: Standardization of formula (ingredients in g/100g) for preparation of sorghum-finger millet papad

Particulars FormulaNo.1 FormulaNo. 2 FormulaNo. 3 FormulaNo. 4 FormulaNo. 5 FormulaNo. 6
Sorghum

100

90

80

70

60

50

Finger millet

0

10

20

30

40

50

Papad khar

2

2

2

2

2

2

Black pepper

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Sesame seeds

2

2

2

2

2

2

Asafoetida

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

 

Results and Discussion

Nutritional composition of papad

It is observed from table.2 that moisture content was range from 9 to 9.25 %, fat (0.88 to 1.05 %), protein (8.39 to 12.64%), carbohydrate (76.77 to 80.21%) and ash (0.54 to 1.27%). The maximum values for moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate and ash were 9.25, 1.05, 12.64, 80.21 and 1.27 %, respectively whereas, minimum values were 9, 0.88, 8.39, 76.77 and 0.54 %, respectively.

Table 2: Nutritional composition of raw sorghum-finger millet papad

Sr.  No. Sorghum-finger millet papads Moisture      (%) Fat (%) Protein            (%) Carbohydrate      (%) Ash (%)
1 S0 (100:00)

9

1.05

12.64

76.77

0.54

2 S1 (90:10)

9.01

1.01

11.78

77.52

0.68

3 S2 (80:20)

9.14

0.98

10.93

78.12

0.83

4 S3 (70:30)

9.21

0.94

10.08

78.8

0.97

5 S4 (60:40)

9.22

0.91

9.22

79.53

1.12

6 S5 (50:50)

9.25

0.88

8.39

80.21

1.27

Mean

9.1

0.9

10.5

78.4

0.9

SE ±

0.2582

0.0073

0.0064

0.0263

0.0064

CD (P=05)

0.7783

0.0220

0.0195

0.0793

0.195

Note: Each value is a mean of three determinations

Effect of finger millet on mineral content of papad

The mineral composition of the raw sorghum-finger millet papad was analyzed and it indicates calcium content of control (S0) was 3.35 mg/100g, but the calcium content for S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 papad were 21.3, 45.27,78.4, 111.6 and 144.8 mg/100g, respectively. Iron content of control (S0) was 3.2 mg/100g, but the iron content for S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 papads were 3.27, 3.32, 3.41, 3.47 and 3.54 mg/100g, respectively. Results indicated that calcium and iron content increase with increasing the finger millet concentrations and similar results were found by others [7].

Table 3: Mineral composition of raw sorghum-finger millet papad

Sr. No.

Particulars

Mineral (mg/100g)

Calcium (Ca)

Iron (Fe)

1

Parbhani Moti grains

3.33

11.32

2

Finger millet grains

344

3.9

3

S0 (100:00)

3.35

3.2

4

S1 (90:10)

21.3

3.27

5

S2 (80:20)

45.2

3.32

6

S3 (70:30)

78.4

3.41

7

S4 (60:40)

111.6

3.47

8

S5 (50:50)

144.8

3.54

SE ±

0.1350

0.0263

CD (P=05)

0.4068

0.0793

Note: Each value is a mean of three determinations

It may be concluded that finger millet and sorghum were rich sources of calcium (Ca) iron (Fe) those could act as a source of dietary mineral (Ca and Fe) and hence in fortification of food stuffs [4].

Effect of finger millet on colour of papad

Colour of the papads is important parameter for the acceptability of the papad. The color of the papad showed variation based on the replacement of finger millet. The L*, a*, b* values are shown in table 4. The L* correspond to lightness decreased gradually as finger millet concentrations increased. The positive values of b* indicates yellowness was decreased as finger millet concentration increased. However a* value indicates redness of papad was gradually increased as finger millet concentrations increased because of the red hue of grain coating of finger millet. It can be concluded from the results that finger millet contributes much to color values of the product. L*, a*, b* Values are means of three replicates, control 0 g/100 g. Values in the same column with different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05.

Table 4: Evaluation of colour of papad

Sorghum-finger millet papads*

L*

a*

b*

S0 (100:00)

36.58

0.23

9.57

S1 (90:10)

34.05

5.6

9.04

S2 (80:20)

21.34

4.54

6.42

S3 (70:30)

24.4

4.74

5.51

S4 (60:40)

23.11

3.92

4.58

S5 (50:50)

23.19

2.76

1.91

SE ±

0.0711

0.0398

0.0057

CD (P=05)

0.2143

0.1202

0.0174

Note: Each value is a mean of three determinations

L*, a* and b* values of the sorghum millet papads were compared with L*, a* and b* values of standard white reference tile. L* (lightness), a* (redness and greenness) and b* (yellowness and blueness) values of the standard white reference tile are 97.67, 0.08 and 1.54, respectively [5]. In sorghum and finger millet, phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins and condensed tannins are major contributors of colour of the grains [1].

Effect of storage on microbial quality of papad

Samples of sorghum-finger millet papad with three months storage period tend to have higher mean bacterial counts 5.7 x 102 CFU/g than those with two months 4.2 x 102 CFU/g and one month 1.1 x 102 CFU/g.

Table 5: Microbial quality of papad

Sr. No.

Storage period (months)

Total bacterial count (CFU/g)

Total yeast and mould count (CFU/g)

1

1 month

1.1 x 102

1.5 x 102

2

2 months

4.2 x 102

3.2 x 102

3

3 months

5.7 x 102

5.2 x 102

and surface growth

Note: Each value is a mean of three determinations

Total yeast and mould counts were highest 5.2 x 102 (CFU/g) in three months stored papad than two months 3.2 x 102 (CFU/g) and one month 1.5 x 102 CFU/g. There was growth of molds on the surface of papad with three months storage period. The growth of bacteria, yeast and mould were in increasing order as storage period increased. As the results showed that three months stored papad samples were contaminated by bacteria, yeast and mould due to increase in moisture content in papads with increase in storage period [3].

Organoleptic evaluation of papad

Table 6: Mean sensory score values for the papads prepared from three days soaked grains

Sorghum-finger millet papads

Appearance

Colour

Flavour

Taste

Texture

Overall acceptability

S0 (100:00)

8.3

9

8.3

8.4

8.1

8.3

S1 (90:10)

7.1

7.6

7.7

8.1

7.9

8.1

S2 (80:20)

7.5

7.4

7.5

7.8

8.2

8.1

S3 (70:30)

7.3

7.1

7.1

7.9

8.1

8.2

S4 (60:40)

7.4

6.9

7.6

7.6

8.3

8.4

S5 (50:50)

7.5

6.9

7.6

7.9

8.1

8.2

Mean

7.36

7.18

7.5

7.86

8.12

8.2

SE ±

0.0730

0.2772

0.3619

0.28

0.1678

0.1169

CD (P=05)

0.2200

0.8356

1.0907

0.86

0.5059

0.3523

Note: Each value is a mean of three determinations

Mean appearance scores ranged from 7.1 to 8.3. S0 papad scored highest appearance score (8.3). Mean colour scores ranged from 6.9 to 9.0. S0 papad scored maximum colour scores (9.0). The mean flavour scores ranged from 7.1 to 8.3. S0 papads scored higher flavour scores (8.3).

The mean taste score ranged from 7.6 to 8.4. S0 papad scored highest taste scores (8.4). The mean overall acceptability scores ranged from 8.1 to 8.4 with mean of 8.22. S4 papad scored highest overall acceptability.

Sorghum papads incorporated with different proportions of finger millet were   organoleptically evaluated and the best one (sample S4) was selected and result was in accordance with results of other study [6].

Conclusion

It is concluded that the chemical properties like moisture content was ranged from 9 to 9.25 %, fat (0.88 to 1.05 %), protein (8.39 to 12.64%), carbohydrate (76.77 to 80.21%) and ash (0.54 to 1.27%). Calcium and iron content increase with increasing the finger millet concentrations. Three months stored papad was contaminated by bacteria, yeast and mould due to increase in moisture content in papads with increase in storage period. Sorghum papad (S4) prepared with 60% sorghum flour and 40% finger millet flour was selected based on organoleptic analysis.

Acknowlegement

Author is grateful to Sorghum Research Station Parbhani for providing sorghum variety and finger millet grains and to the Shri. D.R More, Associate Professor, Department of FTBM, College of Food Technology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani- Maharashtra where this research work was conducted. Author also grateful to Shri. Dr. S. Kaleemulah, Associate Dean and Principal, College of Food Science and Technology, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh for constant encouragement of students towards research.

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