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Constraints Perceived by Vegetable Growers for the Use of Farm Mechanization

R. Rajasree, C. K. Timbadia 2* and F. L. Sharma1

1Department of Extension Education, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, India, 313001

2Senior Scientist and Head, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India, 396450

ABSTRACT:

Emergence and application of  farm mechanization helped in achieving the optimum crop production and reducing the human drudgery to an extent. Often farm mechanization is mistakenly perceived as tractor mechanization. Even though farm mechanization helps farmers in various ways it is not adopted on a full scale. Hence the study was conducted to find the constraints perceived by the farmers especially in vegetable cultivation. The study has been conducted in twelve villages of Vansda taluk of Navsari district of Gujarat which was purposively selected. Sixty respondents were randomly selected from the vegetable cluster units working in the area. A pre- structured questionnaire schedule was prepared for collecting data with regard to the constraints perceived by the farmers. Frequency for each constraint was given in descending order and based on that ranking order was given. From the investigation, it concludes that majority of the respondents were middle aged, had primary level of education and agriculture and livestock as their chief occupation. Majority of the respondents were marginal farmers and had an experience of above 25 years in agriculture and allied activities. Among the constraints, application of machines in heavy soil was troublesome ranked first ranked since Gujarat is a state having black soil, farmers found very difficult to operate the farm machines. Lack of credit facility, high variable cost and lack of technical support ranked third, fourth and fifth, respectively.

KEYWORDS:

Constraints; Farm mechanization; Southern Gujarat; Vegetable Cultivation



Copy the following to cite this article:

Rajasree R, Timbadia C. K, Sharma F. L. Constraints Perceived by Vegetable Growers for the Use of Farm Mechanization. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(2).


Copy the following to cite this URL:

Rajasree R, Timbadia C. K, Sharma F. L. Constraints Perceived by Vegetable Growers for the Use of Farm Mechanization. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(2). Available from: http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=2511


Introduction

Gujarat is having tropical climate, with temperature ranging from 130C to 270C in January and a maximum of 450C in May- June. The normal annual rainfall of Gujarat state is 852 mm and has about 1600km long coastal area. This climatic pattern favours for development of fresh fruits like Alphanso mango, Sapota, Aonla and Dates, vegetables like Bitter gourd, Onion and Beans, the spices like Cumin, Fennel and Garlic. Grapes, Cashew, Medical and Aromatic crops like Aloevera, Palmarosa are emerging as potential new crops in suitable areas of the state. Investment of Green House, floriculture and medical plant projects, tissue culture units, fruit and vegetable processing units are initiated in the state, which shows shining future of horticulture in the Gujarat. Farmers get amble options in crop diversification as well as in setting up of agro based industries. Small and marginal farmers were encouraged for the sustainable and viable horticulture production through various technological interventions and policy refinements. Farm mechanization is widely adopted in the cultivation of field crop cultivation, vegetable cultivation, plantation etc. different type of farmer and eco friendly implements have been developed and its being used from land preparation to post harvesting process. During the green revolution the importance of farm mechanization gained its importance. The technological interventions paved the way for higher adoption of vegetable cultivation and reducing the drudgery of the farmer. Still full scale adoption of farm mechanization in farmsteads is lacking. This might be due to various reasons like difference in socio-economic characteristics and topographical variations of a place. The non- availability and high wages of casual labour were the important problems faced by the farmers and mechanization was associated with high cost and non- availability of machinery (6).

Constraints faced by the vegetable growers differ from individual to individual depending upon their social status, communication behaviour, livelihood requirement (3). Out of the major problems, farmers were lacking technical knowledge especially in mechanization of agriculture, soil testing programme and integrated pest management. Considering these factors, it is worthy to conduct an investigation based on the “constraints perceived by vegetable growers in the application of farm mechanization” was conducted. The present study was done with the following objectives:

  1. To identify the socio-economic characteristics of vegetable growers in the study area.
  2. Analyze constraints faced by the vegetable growers in the application of farm mechanization.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted among vegetable growers of the Vansda taluka of Navsari district of Gujarat. Twelve villages were purposively selected and a comprehensive list of the farmers who adopted farm mechanization in their vegetable cultivation area was obtained from vegetable cluster unit working in Limzar. The 60 respondents were randomly selected from the villages of Vansda taluka of Navsari district. Ex-post facto design was used in the research. Most suitable variables were selected for studying the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers. A pre- structured questionnaire schedule was prepared for collecting data with regard to the constraints perceived by the farmers. Frequency for each constraint was given in descending order and based on that ranking order was given.

Results and Discussion

Table 1: a) Socio-economic Characteristics of vegetable growers

Sr. No

Personal Characteristics

No. of respondents

Percentage (%)
1. AgeYoung age  (Up to 32 years)Middle age (between 33 to 52 years)

Old age (above 52 years)

1533

12

2555

20

2. Education IlliteratePrimary level of education

Secondary and higher secondary level of education

College level of education and above

830

16

 

6

13.350

26.6

 

10

  OccupationAgriculture + allied activitiesAgriculture+ livestock

Agriculture + allied activities + business

1934

7

31.6656.66

11.68

  Land HoldingMarginal farmerSmall farmer

Medium farmer

Big farmer

2816

12

4

46.6626.66

20.00

6.66

  Annual IncomeUp to Rs. 50,000Rs. 50,001- Rs. 1,00,000

Rs. 1,00,001- Rs. 1,50,001

Rs 1, 50,001- to Rs. 2,00,000

Above Rs. 2,00,001

1832

10

-

-

30.0050.33

16.67

-

-

  Size of familySmall size of family (up to 6 members)Medium size of family (6 to 8 members)

Large size of family (more than 8 members)

26 

23

 

12

43.33 

36.67

 

20.00

  Farming experience Lower level of farming experienceMedium level of farming

Higher level of farming

1012

38

16.6720.00

63.33

  Farming Experience in MechanizationLower level of farming experience in mechanizationMedium level of farming experience in mechanization

Higher level of farming experience in mechanization

21

 

25

 

14

35

 

41.67

 

23.33

 

From table 1, it indicates that majority (55%) of the respondents were in the middle age group. The respondents belonging to young and old age group were 25 and 20 per cent, respectively. It also stated that young age group was interested to adopt farm mechanization in vegetable cultivation, which may be due to better returns within the short period. These findings are supported with the other studies (1,2,4 and 5). Among the respondents, 50 per cent of the respondents were found to have primary level education and very few (10 %) respondents had college level of education and above level of education. The respondents from secondary and higher secondary level of education and illiterate level of education were 26.6 and 13.3 per cent, respectively. Majority of the farmers were belonged to agriculture and allied activities (56.66 %) and 31.66 per cent of the respondent were from agriculture and livestock background. Respondents doing all the three occupations (agriculture, allied activities and business) were only 11.68 per cent, which was very low. Regarding land holding, 46.66 per cent of the respondents were belonged to the category of marginal farmer, 26.66 percent of the respondents belonged to the category of small farmer, 20 and 6.66 per cent of the respondents belonged to the category of medium and large farmer.

More than half of the respondents(53.33 %) were having annual income of Rs. 50,000 – 1,00,001and and 30 per cent of the respondents were having annual income up to 50,000, while 16.67 per cent of the respondents were having annual income of Rs.1,00,001- 1,50,000.  From the table 1, it indicates that slightly less than half (43.33% ) of the respondents were from small size of family, slightly less than the one third of (36.66 %) of the respondents had medium size of family and 20 per cent of the respondents had large size of family.

With regard to farming experience, 55 per cent of the respondents were having higher farming experience (above 15 years), 20 per cent of the respondents were having medium level of farming experience and 16.67 per cent were from lower level farming experience.

In mechanization experience, 41.67 per cent of the respondents were having medium level of farming experience followed by 35.00 per cent of the respondents had lower level and 23.33 per cent were from higher level of farming experience in mechanization.

Table 2: b) Constraints perceived by vegetable growers in relation to the farm mechanization.

The difficulties faced by the vegetable growers in their day to day farm activities are accounted as the constraints. To obtain the better result of any adoption of technology constraints must be minimized. Therefore, constraints must be studied thoroughly and remedies must be made regarding the same. The information regarding the constraints was collected according to the respondent’s perception and frequency for each constraint was given in descending order.

Table 2 : Distribution of respondents according to their constraints experienced during farm mechanization

Sr .No Constraints Percentage Rank
Lack of technical support 48.00 V
Lack of technical knowledge and skill 59.00 II
Lack of credit facility 56.00 III
High variable cost 52.00 IV
Application of machines in heavy soil is troublesome 68.00 I
Undulated topography 45.00 VI

 

Among the constraints listed out in the Table 2,  which was according to the perception of farmer, application of machines in heavy soil was troublesome ranked first followed by lack of technical knowledge and skill ranked second. Since Gujarat is a state having black soil, farmers found very difficult to operate the farm machines. Lack of credit facility, high variable cost and lack of technical support ranked third, fourth and fifth, respectively. Other major constraint experienced by the vegetable growers was undulated topography of the location due to this transportation of heavy machines was difficult.

Conclusion

This study conducted was mainly intended to know the socio-economic status of the respondents as well as the problems faced by the farmers in farming activities with respect to mechanization. It concludes that the majority of the respondents were middle aged, had primary level of education and agriculture and livestock as their chief occupation. Majority of the respondents were marginal farmers and had an experience of above 25 years in agriculture and allied activities. Farm mechanization has been adopted in the vegetable cultivation. But farmers found very difficult to operate the farm machines and the major constraint faced by the farmers was the lack of technical knowledge and skill.

Acknowledgements

The author deems it as a proud privilege to express gratitude and thanks to her mentor, Dr. C.K. Timbadia, Programme Cordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari for his timely guidance, encouragement and need based help at each stage from the beginning to the completion of this research work. The principal author also wishes to express her profound gratefulness to Dr. Alpesh K Leua, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari for his constant supervision and co-operations. The author humbly desires to expresses her thanks and gratefulness to all her colleagues and teachers of the Department of Extension Education, NMCA, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari as well as Department of Extension Education, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur. Thanks and sincere gratitude, indebtedness and profound respect to her beloved parents, brother and friends for their blessings, encouragement and moral support in all phases of this academic pursuit from beginning to the end.

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