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Groundwater Quality Characterization of Fatehpur (Rajasthan, India) Through Physicochemical and Correlation Studies

Urmila Barwar,1 * D.D. Gudesaria2, H.S. Bhandari3 and R.P. Mathur1

1,4Werner Laboratory, Govt. Dungar P.G. College, Bikaner-334002 (Raj.), India

2P.G. Department of Chemistry, S.K. Govt. College, Sikar- 332001 (Raj.), India

3G. C. R. C. Govt. Dungar P.G. College, Bikaner-334002 (Raj.) India

Corresponding author Email: ddgudesaria@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:

The present work deals with a statistical and correlation analysis various physicochemical indices of groundwater in Fatehpur (district Sikar), Rajasthan, India. In now day’s water quality is a big challenging issue due to vastly increasing population, industrialization and over exploitation.  Groundwater samples were collected from the different sites of study area, they analyzed for their physicochemical parameters such as fluoride, nitrate, EC, TDS, TH, TA, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen,  calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, carbonate, chloride, bicarbonate, sodium and potassium. The study was carried out to demonstrate the utility of multivariate data analyses statistical techniques in characterization and classification of groundwater chemistry. Multivariate models like correlation and regression have been applied for characterization and classification of groundwater.  The physicochemical parameters play a valuable role in classifying and assessing of groundwater quality. The results were compared with the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) and WHO standard and suggested that water is highly polluted in study area, so before using proper treatment is required.

KEYWORDS:

Correlation; Fatehpur; Fluoride; Groundwater quality; physicochemical parameters; Regression;



Copy the following to cite this article:

Barwar U, Gudesaria D. D, Bhandari H. S, Mathur R. P. Groundwater Quality Characterization of Fatehpur (Rajasthan, India) Through Physicochemical and Correlation Studies. Curr Agri Res 2018;6(1).


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Barwar U, Gudesaria D. D, Bhandari H. S, Mathur R. P. Groundwater Quality Characterization of Fatehpur (Rajasthan, India) Through Physicochemical and Correlation Studies. Curr Agri Res 2018;6(1). Available from: http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=3452


Introduction

Contamination of groundwater is irreversible process. It is main cause of spread of epidemics and chronic diseases in human, and if used for irrigation it severely damages crop and decreases grain production1.Many researchers have been reported that rapid industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities are affecting the groundwater quality. Assessment of fluoride contamination in groundwater2 of some villages was conducted in Northern Rajasthan and found that the level of fluoride was higher than that of recommended upper limit by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standard and area indexed as high risk for skeleton fluorosis. Endemic fluorosis3 in Southern Rajasthan has been studied and reported that increased bone mass and density as well as calcification of ligaments and interosseous membranes and osteosclerosis increased with age and fluoride concentration. Groundwater in fluorosis endemic areas might be a major contributing factor to total fluoride ingestion and calcium ingestion reduce to intestinal absorption of fluoride so diets rich in calcium, magnesium and vitamin-C4. The study of high fluoride content in groundwater terrain of bankapatti area of Nagaur district was carried5 out and observed that large number of patients suffering from skeleton and dental fluorosis in some villages of study area. Assessment of heavy metals in correlation with physic-chemical properties of drinking water of Northern Rajasthan, India has also been reported6 andconcluded that drinking water contaminated with heavy metals was prone to radiological and chemical threats for inhabitation.

The present study was carried out to demonstrate the utility of multivariate data analyses statistical techniques in characterization and classification of groundwater chemistry. The physico-chemical parameters of groundwater play a significant role in classifying and assessing the groundwater quality.

Materials and Methods

Study area and water sampling

Fatehpur is located at 27°58’ to 27°98’ North Latitude and  74°57’ to 74°95’ East Longitude.  It  is situated at midway between Jaipur- Bikaner on National Highway-11  (NH-11) 48 km from Sikar.  Fatehpur is a part of Shekhawati region.  The map of study area is shown in fig.1.Ground water samples were collected  from tube wells and open wells from different sampling sites as  North Zone (Do Janti Balaji Mandir – Open well), South Zone (Government Dhanuka  Hospital – Tube well), East Zone (Chamdia Villa- Tube well), West Zone (Jahangir Kua- Open well), North East Zone (Doli Sati Mandir – Tube well),  South East Zone (Fatehpur Hospital- Tube well), South West Zone (Ragunathpura  Stand – Open well),  North West Zone (Laxminath Mandir -Tube well),  Central Zone (Bawari Gate Stand -Tube well, Chhatria Stand- Tube well).

The ground water samples were systematically collected in pre cleaned, dry and sterilized plastic bottles of one litre capacity. The physicochemical, correlation and regression analysis were carried out for various parameters. Analytical grade reagents were used for the assessment of samples.

Methodology

The analysis of water samples for various physicochemical parameters were carried out using APHA methods.7Temperature and pH were determined  immediately at the place of collection while Turbidity,  EC (electrical conductivity), total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen were determined at the same day of sampling using Water Analyzer (Systronics-371).Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness (as CaCO3), Calcium Hardness (as CaCO3), Magnesium Hardness (as CaCO3) and Chloride determined by titrimetric methods. Fluoride determined by ion selective electrode method, nitrate by spectrophotometer, sulphate by turbidity method, sodium and potassium by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Statistical parameters have been calculated as follow:-

Formula

‘N’ and ‘n’ are Number of observations, x is value of parameter.

Karl Pearson Correlation coefficients (r) have been calculated between each pair of parameter as follow:-

Formula

n = Number of observation, x and y are two variables.

The linear regression equation y = a x + b was developed for the pairs having highly significant (0.8 <r<1.0) and moderate significant (0.6 <r<0.8) ‘r’ values8,9 .

‘x’ is independent variable, ‘y’is dependent variable, ‘a’is Slope of line and ‘b’is intercept on y- axis.

‘a’ and ‘b’ can be calculated  by following  formula:-

Formula

 

Result and Discussion

Physicochemical and correlation analysis

In the present study, respective values of observed physicochemical parameters are summarised in table 1 and 2.  The values of statistical parameters are shown in table 3. The Karl Pearson coefficient (r) among various water quality parameters had been calculated and the numerical values of correlation coefficients (r) are presented in table 4. Correlation coefficient (r) between any two parameters ‘x’ and ‘y’ was calculated for parameters such as fluoride, nitrate, total dissolved solids, pH,  electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, sulphate, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium and sodium of the groundwater samples. It is presented as 13 x 13 correlation matrix.

Turbidity value of groundwater samples in the study area varied from 8.2 to 14.8 NTU with an average value of 10.8 NTU. According to BIS standard (5.0 -10.0 NTU) for turbidity 70% groundwater samples were found exceeding the permissible limits but according to WHO standard (5.0 NTU) all groundwater samples were found exceeding the permissible limits. The pH value of groundwater samples ranged from 7.6 to 8.7 with an average value of 8.19. According to BIS standard (6.5-8.5) for pH 30% groundwater samples were found exceeding the permissible limits.

Electrical conductivity value varied from 1161 to 1906 µmhos /cm with an average value of 1508.50 µmhos /cm. Electrical conductivity of water varies directly with the temperature and is proportional to its dissolved inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity had positive correlation with total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, nitrate, sulphate, bicarbonate, chloride, sodium and negatively correlates with TH, calcium and magnesium. High positive correlation of electrical conductivity with TDS and chloride indicates the high mobility of ions. Total alkalinity value ranged between 421 to 624 mg/L with an average value of 482.40 mg/L, indicated high alkaline nature of water in the study area. Almost all samples have total alkalinity values within the permissible limits of BIS standard (600 mg/L) except of Doli Sati Mandir. Total alkalinity had positive correlation with TDS, bicarbonate, chloride, sodium and negatively correlates with TH.

Solubility of CaF2 increase with the increase of total alkalinity

CaF2 + CO3-2     →   CaCO3  +  2F-

CaF2 + HCO3-→  CaCO3  + 2F- + H2O + CO2

Total hardness value of groundwater samples varied from 155 to 334 mg/L as CaCO3 with an average value of 217.80 mg/L as CaCO3. In the present study, total hardness of 50 % groundwater samples were found exceeding the permissible limits of BIS standard (200 mg/L). High positive correlation of TH with Ca and Mg ions indicate that hardness was mainly due to presence of calcium and magnesium salts in groundwater water. Total dissolved solids value ranged between 778 to 1257 mg/L with an average value of 1001.70 mg/L. In the study area, all groundwater samples have total dissolved solids values under the permissible limits of BIS standard (2000 mg/L). Total dissolved solids have positive correlation with chloride, sodium, bicarbonate, fluoride, nitrate, sulphate and negatively correlate with TH, Ca and Mg.

Fluoride value varied from 4.8 to 7.5 mg/L with an average value of 6.11 mg/L. Fluoride value of all groundwater samples were found exceeding the permissible limits (BIS and WHO 1.5 mg/L). Fluoride concentration decreases with the increase of total hardness, calcium and magnesium hardness. Fluoride had positive correlation with electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chloride, and sodium and negatively correlate with TH, Ca and Mg. A positive correlation between fluoride and total alkalinity indicate the alkaline nature of groundwater, which promotes the leaching of fluoride and thus increasing the fluoride concentration groundwater11 . In the intermediate pH of water bicarbonates ion was the dominant species of carbon. The positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate can be explained by considering the mass law equation relating to calcite and fluorite when both are in contact with water12 .

CaF2(s)  + HCO3-    →   CaCO3(s)  + H+ + F-

Formula

 

Thus at constant pH any increase or decrease in bicarbonate concentration may be accompanied by corresponding changes in fluoride concentration. From the above observation, it is clear that in groundwater the concentration of fluoride increases as the CO3-2 and HCO3- content of water increase and it decreases along with an increase in Ca and Mg contents13.

Nitrate value ranged between14.2 to 43.9 mg/L with an average value of 29.17 mg/L. Nitrate value of all groundwater samples in study area were found within the permissible limits of BIS (45-100 mg/L) and WHO standard (50 mg/L). Nitrate had positive correlation with sulphate. It may be due to the use of fertilizer for enhancing crop production and negative correlation with alkalinity and chloride. Sulphate value varied from 10.4 to 28.2 mg/L with an average value of 17.93 mg/L. All samples had sulphate value under the permissible limits of BIS (200-400 mg/L) and WHO standard (250 mg/L). Bicarbonate value ranged between 421 to 18.3 mg/L with an average value of 481.28 mg/L, indicated high alkaline nature of water in the study area. Bicarbonate had positive correlation with chloride, sodium and negatively correlates with TH, Ca and Mg. Chloride value varied from 90.5 to 192.6 mg/L with an average value of 134.02 mg/L. Chloride value of all samples under the permission limit (BIS 250 mg/L). Chlorides bear a positive correlation with sodium. It indicates that sodium chloride was more than calcium chloride and magnesium chlorides in the water samples. Sodium value of samples ranged between110 to 318 mg/L with an average value of 198.40 mg/L. Sodium value were found 50% groundwater samples were exceed the BIS and WHO standards (200 mg/L).

Scatter diagram for highly significant positive correlation (EC- TDS, TA- HCO3-, F- – TA, SO4-2 - NO3-, Ca – TH, Mg-TH) and negative correlation (F- – TH, F- – Ca) are depicted in fig.1.

Fig.1. Correlation between   various physico-chemical parameters of groundwater Fatehpur Figure 1: Correlation between   various physico-chemical parameters of groundwater Fatehpur  



Click here to View figure

 

Fig.2. Correlation between   various physico-chemical parameters of groundwater Fatehpur Figure 1a. Correlation between   various physico-chemical parameters of groundwater Fatehpur 



Click here to View figure

 

Regression analysis

The values of linear regression analysis are presented in table 5 and 7. The observed and predicted values of dependent variable followed by % error are given in table 6 and 8. Adjusted R2 values were very close to estimated R2 values that indicate the variable have adequate predictive ability for dependent variable and relevancy of regression model. The parameters, which have 0.00-0.05 p-value (significant value) were significantly related to their independent variable and >0.05 value were less significantly related. Most of parameters show significant correlation, which indicates high interactions of the chemical contents in groundwater.

Table 1: Physical parameters of groundwater of Fatehpur

S.

No.

Sample site

Source

Code

Temp

Turbidity

pH

EC

TA

TH

Ca H

Mg H

TDS

DO

1

Chhatria Stand

OW

FTC1

24.5

10.6

8.7

1161

421

334

198

136

778

4.4

2

Govt. DhanukaHospital

TW

FTC2

25.2

9.3

8.3

1587

510

210

126

84

1051

4.1

3

Jahangir Kua

OW

FTC3

25.5

10.8

8.0

1507

452

280

162

118

1004

3.7

4

RagunathpuraStand

OW

FTC4

25.4

8.2

8.2

1325

411

245

147

98

882

3.9

5

LaxminathMandir

TW

FTC5

25.6

11.9

8.6

1662

467

170

102

68

1101

3.5

6

Do JantiBalajiMandir

OW

FTC6

25.0

10.4

7.7

1472

492

164

96

68

980

4.3

7

Doli Sati Mandir

TW

FTC7

26.0

14.8

7.6

1906

624

155

92

63

1257

3.0

8

Bawari Gate

TW

FTC8

25.2

11.6

7.8

1581

532

270

162

108

1045

3.8

9

Chamdia Villa

TW

FTC9

25.3

10.5

8.6

1495

441

190

115

75

992

3.6

10

Fatehpur Hospital

TW

FTC10

25.5

9.9

8.4

1389

474

160

96

64

927

3.2

 

Table 2: Chemical parameters of groundwater of Fatehpur

S.

No

Sample site

 

Source

Code

F-

NO-3

SO4-2

 

CO3-2

HCO3-

 

Cl-

Ca+2

Mg+2

Na+

K+

1

Chhatria Stand

OW

FTC1

4.8

15.2

11.4

0.0

421.0

90.5

79.2

33.05

110

2.1

2

Govt. Dhanuka Hospital

TW

FTC2

5.9

38.0

22.5

0.0

510.0

114.2

50.4

20.41

202

3.3

3

Jahangir Kua

OW

FTC3

5.6

17.0

15.7

0.0

452.0

132.4

64.8

28.67

176

2.7

4

Ragunathpura Stand

OW

FTC4

5.2

23.0

18.4

0.0

411.0

146.7

58.8

23.81

227

2.4

5

LaxminathMandir

TW

FTC5

6.2

42.0

24.6

0.0

467.0

121.6

40.8

16.52

171

3.8

6

Do JantiBalajiMandir

OW

FTC6

6.8

14.2

10.4

3.4

488.6

132.4

38.4

16.52

194

4.1

7

Doli Sati Mandir

TW

FTC7

7.5

26.0

12.8

5.7

618.3

192.6

36.8

15.31

318

4.7

8

Bawari Gate

TW

FTC8

5.4

43.9

28.2

2.1

529.9

128.4

64.8

26.24

210

3.2

9

Chamdia Villa

TW

FTC9

6.5

40.0

20.5

0.0

441.0

144.6

46.0

18.23

162

3.9

10

Fatehpur Hospital

TW

FTC10

7.2

32.4

14.8

0.0

474.0

136.8

38.4

15.55

214

4.6

 

Table 3: Standard deviation of physicochemical parameters of groundwater of Fatehpur

S. No.

Parameters

Minimum

Maximum

Average

Standard deviation

1

Turbidity

8.2

14.8

10.8

1.76

2

pH

7.6

8.7

8.19

0.40

3

Electrical Conductivity (EC)

1161.0

1906.0

1508.50

200.89

4

Total Alkalinity (TA)

421.0

624.0

482.40

62.52

5

Total Hardness (TH)

155.0

334.0

217.80

61.58

6

Calcium Hardness (CaH)

92.0

198.0

129.60

36.12

7

Magnesium Hardness (MgH)

63.0

136.0

88.20

25.58

8

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

778.0

1257.0

1001.70

129.04

9

Dissolve Oxygen (DO)

6.0

7.4

6.75

0.45

10

Fluoride

4.8

7.5

6.11

0.89

11

Nitrate

14.2

43.9

29.17

11.56

12

Sulphate

10.4

28.2

17.93

5.94

13

Bicarbonate

421

618.3

481.28

60.85

14

Chloride

90.5

192.6

134.02

26.23

15

Calcium

36.8

79.2

51.84

14.44

16

Magnesium

15.31

33.05

21.43

6.22

17

Sodium

110.0

318.0

198.4

53.67

18

Potassium

2.1

4.7

3.48

0.89

 

 

Table 4: Correlation coefficient (r) of various groundwater quality parameters of Fatehpur

Parameters

pH

EC

 

T A

TH

TDS

 

  F-

 

 NO-3

 

HCO3-

 

Cl-

 

SO4-2

Ca+2

Mg+2

 

Na

 

pH

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EC

-0.5313

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

T A

-0.6952

0.8438

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TH

0.2118

-0.5869

-0.4511

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TDS

-0.5319

0.9999

0.8423

-0.5908

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F-

-0.3323

0.5978

0.5932

-0.9068

0.5839

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NO-3

0.2397

0.4062

0.2117

-0.3035

0.3986

0.1295

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

HCO3-

-0.6874

0.8461

0.9998

-0.4506

0.8446

0.5914

0.2234

1

 

 

 

 

 

Cl-

-0.5921

0.6706

0.6099

-0.5782

0.6711

0.6712

0.0346

0.6045

1

 

 

 

 

SO4-2

0.1615

0.2687

0.0267

0.0406

0.2599

-0.2760

0.8720

0.0376

-0.1477

1

 

 

 

Ca+2

0.2328

-0.5924

-0.4554

0.9987

-0.5970

-0.9154

-0.2689

-0.4547

-0.5833

0.0699

1

 

 

Mg+2

0.1812

-0.5764

-0.4430

0.9974

-0.5794

-0.8905

-0.3510

-0.4429

-0.5684

-0.0011

0.9923

1

 

Na

-0.5064

0.7085

0.7759

-0.5434

0.7071

0.5958

0.0940

0.7737

0.8779

-0.0405

-0.5444

-0.5395

1

Table 5: Regression equation for pairs of parameters having highly significant correlation coefficients (0.8<R<1.0) of groundwater of Fatehpur 

S.

N.

Pairs of parameters

R

value

R2

Adj.

R2

Regression

coefficients

Regression equation

 

           Y = ax + b

Sig.

a

b

1

EC-TA

0.8438

0.7120

0.6297

0.2626

86.26

TA = 0.2626  X  EC + 86.26

0.01

2

EC-TDS

0.9999

0.9998

0.9997

0.6423

32.84

TDS = 0.6423 X  EC + 32.84

0.05

3

EC- HCO3

0.8461

0.7159

0.6348

0.2563

94.67

HCO3= 0.2563 X EC+ 94.67

0.02

4

TDS-TA

0.8423

0.7095

0.6265

0.4081

73.59

TA = 0.4081 X TDS +73.59

0.02

5

TA- HCO3

0.9998

0.9996

0.9995

0.9731

11.82

HCO3= 0.9731 X TA +11.82

0.04

6

F- TH

– 0.9068

0.8223

0.7715

– 62.83

601.71

TH = – 62.83  X F + 601.71

0.02

7

Ca+2 - TH

0.9987

0.9974

0.9967

4.2571

– 2.89

TH = 4.2571 X Ca+2– 2.89

0.00

8

Mg+2 – TH

0.9974

0.9948

0.9933

9.8812

6.04

TH = 9.8812 X Mg+2+ 6.04

0.01

9

TDS- HCO3

0.8446

0.7133

0.6314

0.3983

82.31

HCO3 =0.3983 XTDS +82.31

0.01

10

F – Ca+2

– 0.9154

0.8380

0.7917

–14.8803

142.76

Ca+2 = –14. 8803X F +142.76

0.00

11

F – Mg+2

– 0.8905

0.7930

0.7339

– 6.2280

59.48

Mg+2= – 6.228 X F + 59.48

0.00

12

Mg+2- Ca+2

0.9923

0.9847

0.9803

2.3064

2.41

Ca+2 = 2.3064 X Mg+2+ 2.41

0.00

13

Cl-  Na+

0.8779

0.7707

0.7052

1.7967

– 42.39

Na+=  1.7967 XCl– 42.39

0.00

14

SO4–2  -  NO3

0.8720

0.7604

0.6920

1.6956

–1.23

NO3 = 1.6956 X SO4–2  –1.23

0.00

Table 6: Percentage error of the pairs of parameters having highly significant correlation coefficients (0.8<R<1.0) of groundwater of Fatehpur

S.

No.

Pairs of parameters

Independent variable

Dependent variable

X value

Y (observed)

Y (predicted)

% error

1

EC-TA

EC

TA

1508.50

482.40

482.39

0.002

2

EC-TDS

EC

TDS

1508.50

1001.70

1001.75

–0.005

3

EC- HCO3

EC

HCO3

1508.50

481.28

481.30

–0.004

4

TDS-TA

TDS

TA

1001.70

482.40

482.38

0.004

5

TA- HCO3

TA

HCO3

482.40

481.28

481.24

0.008

6

F- TH

F

TH

6.11

217.80

217.82

–0.009

7

Ca+2 - TH

Ca+2

TH

51.84

217.80

217.80

0.000

8

Mg+2 – TH

Mg+2

TH

21.43

217.80

217.79

0.005

9

TDS- HCO3

TDS

HCO3

1001.70

481.28

481.29

–0.002

10

F – Ca+2

F

Ca+2

6.11

51.84

51.84

0.000

11

F – Mg+2

F

Mg+2

6.11

21.43

21.43

0.000

12

Mg+2- Ca+2

Mg+2

Ca+2

21.43

51.84

51.84

0.000

13

Cl-  Na+

Cl

Na+

134.02

198.40

198.40

0.000

14

SO4–2  -  NO3

SO4–2 

NO3

17.93

29.17

29.17

0.000

Table 7: Regression equation for pairs of parameters having moderate significant correlation coefficients (0.6<R<0.8) of groundwater of Fatehpur 

S.

No.

Pairs of Parameters

R

value

R2

Adj.

R2

Regression

Coefficients

Regression Equation

 

           Y = ax + b

Sig.

a

b

1

TA – pH

– 0.6952

0.4833

0.3357

– 0.0044

10.33

pH = – 0.0044 X TA  + 10.33

0.01

2

HCO3 – pH

– 0.6874

0.4725

0.3218

– 0.0045

10.36

pH =–0.0045XHCO3 +10.36

0.00

3

EC – Cl

0.6706

0.4497

0.2925

0.0876

1.95

Cl= 0.0876  X  EC +  1.95

0.07

4

EC – Na+

0.7085

0.5020

0.3597

0.1893

– 87.14

Na+= 0.1893  X  EC – 87.14

0.02

5

Cl – TA

0.6099

0.3720

0.1926

1.4539

287.55

TA= 1.4539 X  Cl + 287.55

0.00

6

Na+- TA

0.7759

0.6020

0.4883

0.9039

303.07

TA= 0.9039 X Na+ + 303.07

0.00

7

TDS – Cl

0.6711

0.4504

0.2934

0.1364

– 2.60

Cl = 0.1364 X TDS – 2.60

0.01

8

TDS – Na+

0.7071

0.5000

0.3572

0.2941

– 96.21

Na+ = 0.2941 X TDS – 96.21

0.01

9

F – Cl

0.6712

0.4505

0.2935

19.806

13.00

Cl = 19.806X F + 13.00

0.01

10

Cl – HCO3

0.6045

0.3654

0.1841

1.4027

293.28

HCO3=1.4027XCl +293.28

0.01

11

Na+- HCO3

0.7737

0.5986

0.4840

0.8772

307.24

HCO3=0.8772XNa++307.24

0.00

Table 8: Percentage error of the pairs of parameters having moderate significant correlation coefficients (0.6<R<0.8) of groundwater of Fatehpur

S.

No.

Pairs of parameters

Independent variable

Dependent variable

X value

Y (observed)

Y (predicted)

% error

1

TA – pH

TA

pH

482.40

8.19

8.20

–0.122

2

HCO3 – pH

HCO3

pH

481.28

8.19

8.19

0.00

3

EC – Cl

EC

Cl

1508.50

134.02

134.09

–0.052

4

EC – Na+

EC

Na+

1508.50

198.40

198.42

–0.010

5

Cl -TA

Cl

TA

134.02

482.40

482.40

0.000

6

Na+-TA

Na+

TA

198.40

482.40

482.40

0.000

7

TDS – Cl

TDS

Cl

1001.70

134.02

134.03

–0.007

8

TDS – Na+

TDS

Na+

1001.70

198.40

198.39

0.005

9

F – Cl

F

Cl

6.11

134.02

134.01

0.007

10

Cl – HCO3

Cl

HCO3

134.02

481.28

481.27

0.002

11

Na+- HCO3

Na+

HCO3

198.40

481.28

481.28

0.000

Conclusion

The correlation analysis introduce first rate tool for the prediction of parameters values within a reasonable degree of accuracy. It is also useful in exact measurement of water quality. Present tudy indicates that groundwater of study area is highly contaminated, so de-fluoridation of water is essential to do before its use for drinking.

Acknowledgement

Authors are very thankful to Dr. N. Bhojak Associate Professor (Chemistry), Green Chemistry Research Centre (GCRC), Govt. Dungar P.G. College, Bikaner (Raj.), Dr. B.S. Sharma Senior Scientist, Central Institute of Arid Horticulture (CIAH) and Sh. M.L. Rathi Ex En. (P.H.E.D.) Sikar (Raj.) for his valuable motivational support.

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